The 2012 field season, which took place from early June to late July of 2012, incorporated a number of new aspects to the project, more notably a small field school run through the University of Arkansas. The geophysical survey continued with two primary goals: to increase large-scale data collection, and also to focus more detailed, high-density data collection in areas of known promise (in other words, places where we had evidence for subsurface features/structures).
At KAD we expanded out survey to the west of Building X and the surrounding complex, performing a high-density GPR survey there, using a Sensors and Software Noggin with a 250 MHz antenna. It was hoped that the high-density of survey and low-frequency antenna would mitigate any signal penetration problems we experienced during the 2011 field season. This survey yielded spectacular results, imaging a large (c. 12m x 25m), seemingly monumental structure (judging by its location close to Building X, size and width of architecture) with internal partitioning. This structure was named Building XVI, following the excavation nomenclature.
At Maroni, we incorporated yet another instrument, a Geoscan FM256 fluxgate gradiometer, and continued large-coverage survey. As a gradiometer the FM256 has two sensors which are vertically aligned, taking magnetic measurements at slightly different elevations from the ground surface. By subtracting these measurements, it is possible to focus on archaeologically significant signals, and so this new instrument provided a new perspective on magnetic data.
In addition to large-scale coverage with the hand-held FM256, our survey also incorporated targeted, higher-density GPR survey over the c. 300 m2 structure imaged by the Måla GPR and G-858 total field cesium magnetometers. These surveys were performed with the GSSI 400 MHz and Sensors and Software 250 MHz instruments, and revealed very clear architecture to solidify our arguments for low-density settlement between Vournes and Tsaroukkas.
Magnetic and GPR survey in a field to the south and east also showed evidence for architecture and provided an opportunity to perform a small ground-truthing. A 2m x 2m area was excavated over a linear feature that appeared in both magnetic and GPR data, unearthing a stone wall (perhaps a field boundary or Late Bronze Age terracing wall). Pottery found in and on the wall was Late Cypriot.
Small-scale test excavations were also performed by the University of Arkansas field school at KAD. These included test trenches over the newly discovered Building XVI and in survey unit 3, across the N-S running road.